Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://guaiaca.ufpel.edu.br:8080/handle/123456789/2601
metadata.dc.type: masterThesis
Title: Resistência genética à infestação natural e artificial por Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus em bovinos das raças Hereford e Braford
Other Titles: Genetic resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus natural and artificial infestation in Hereford and Braford cattle
metadata.dc.creator: Biegelmeyer, Patrícia
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor1: Dionello, Nelson José Laurino
metadata.dc.contributor.advisor-co1: Cardoso, Fernando Flores
metadata.dc.description.resumo: O objetivo geral do presente estudo foi abordar diferentes perspectivas sobre a resistência genética de bovinos ao carrapato Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Para tanto, foi dividido em três trabalhos. Primeiramente, foi realizado um estudo de revisão que abrangeu alguns aspectos relacionados à resistência, como resultados de trabalhos que avaliaram a resistência de bovinos, fatores ambientais capazes de afetar os fenótipos de resistência e algumas descobertas na área da biologia molecular que poderão ser úteis no processo de identificação de animais geneticamente resistentes. O segundo trabalho objetivou estimar parâmetros genéticos para a resistência mensurada por dois métodos de avaliação em bovinos Hereford e Braford, e as correlações genéticas entre a resistência e características de crescimento dos animais. Os bovinos que participaram das avaliações foram provenientes de rebanhos controlados pelo programa de melhoramento da Conexão Delta G, localizados no estado do Rio Grande do Sul e criados a campo sobre pastagens naturais e artificiais. Foram avaliados dados de 6.462 bovinos com idade média de 18 meses, naturalmente infestados, sendo as contagens realizadas na região do entrepernas (ENT) em 3.413 animais entre 2001 e 2008, e 7.813 registros de contagens na lateral do corpo (LAT) de 3.049 bovinos realizadas entre 2009 e 2011. Foram utilizados também 109.566 dados de peso ao nascimento (PN), 112.815 registros de ganho de peso do nascimento à desmama (GPD) e 55.843 dados de ganho da desmama ao sobreano (GDS). Para as análises, os dados de contagens sofreram transformação logarítmica. As estimativas de herdabilidade dos métodos de avaliação obtidas por análise bicaracterística foram ENT = 0,152 ± 0,043 e LAT = 0,235 ± 0,063, e a correlação genética entre ambos foi de 0,575 ± 0,220. A análise unicaráter da LAT apontou uma repetibilidade de 0,312 ± 0,014. As associações genéticas entre a ENT e a LAT e as características de desenvolvimento avaliadas apontaram associações significativas entre ENT e PN (0,220 ± 0,102), e favoráveis correlações negativas e entre LAT e GPD (-0,211 ± 0,099) e LAT e GDS (-0,650 ± 0,125) (P<0,05). O terceiro trabalho objetivou analisar o efeito da resistência dos bovinos sobre características biológicas dos carrapatos. As teleóginas analisadas foram coletadas em 40 novilhas Braford classificadas como geneticamente resistentes (R) ou suscetíveis (S), de acordo com os valores genéticos obtidos para a característica de contagem de carrapatos, calculados com base em um banco de dados com registros de 9.036 animais das raças Hereford e Braford. Após a classificação, as novilhas selecionadas foram encaminhadas à Embrapa Pecuária Sul (Bagé, RS), onde foram submetidas a quatro infestações artificiais, com intervalos de 14 dias. Os pesos médios iniciais das teleóginas e os pesos das quenóginas não diferiram entre os grupos de novilhas resistentes e suscetíveis. Fêmeas ingurgitadas em novilhas geneticamente suscetíveis apresentaram maior capacidade de postura (R = 0,097 ± 0,021g e S = 0,109 ± 0,030g) e maiores índices de eficiência reprodutiva (R = 47,23 ± 5,85% e S = 53,27 ± 3,74%) e nutricional (R = 54,33 ± 4,36% e S = 65,62 ± 8,84%) que teleóginas ingurgitadas em novilhas resistentes.
Abstract: The overall aim of this study was to analyze different perspectives of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genetic resistance. Therefore, the present study was divided into three manuscripts. Firstly, a literature review was conducted to present some aspects of tick resistance, like results of previous studies of bovine resistance, environmental effects on this triat, and some findings in molecular biology that will help to identify resistant animals. The second trial was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for tick resistance measured by two assessment methods in Hereford and Braford cattle, and genetic correlations between tick resistance and growth of animals. The animals belonging to the Delta G Connection genetic improvement consortium, were raised on nature and artificial pastures in Southern Brazil, and the age at the evaluation period was about 18 months. Data were analyzed from 6,462 bovines naturally exposed to ticks. The number of ticks was counted at inner hind legs region (IHL) of 3,413 animals between 2001 and 2008, and was recorded up to three consecutive counts at one side of body (LAT) in 3,049 bovines between 2009 and 2010, a total of 7,813 records. In addition, the database contained data of 109,566 birth weights (BW), 112,815 records of weight gain from birth to weaning (ADG) and 54,843 data of weight gain from weaning to yearling (PWG). For the analyses, tick count data was transformed using a logarithmic function. Heritability estimates obtained by bivariate analysis were IHL = 0.152 ± 0.043 and LAT = 0.235 ± 0.063 and genetic correlation between both methods was 0.575 ± 0.220. Single-trait analysis of LAT indicated a repeatability of 0.312 ± 0.014. Genetics association analysis between IHL and LAT and the development characteristics evaluated indicated significant associations between IHL and BW (0.220 ± 0.102), and favorable negative correlations between LAT and ADG (-0.211 ± 0.099) and LAT and PWG (-0.650 ± 0.125) (P<0.05). The objective of third trial was to analyze the bovine genetic resistance effect on tick biological traits. The engorged female ticks analyzed were collected from 40 Braford heifers classified as genetically resistant (R) or susceptible (S), according to the breeding values for tick count, calculated based on a database with 9,036 records of Hereford and Braford bovines. After classification, the selected heifers were moved to an experimental area in Embrapa Pecuária Sul, located in the city of Bagé, in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, and subjected to four artificial infestations, 14 days apart each one. Weights of engorged female ticks and of female ticks after oviposition did not differ between resistant and susceptible heifers. Female ticks engorged in genetically susceptible heifers showed higher capacity of posture (R = 0.097 ± 0.021g and S = 0.109 ± 0.030g) and higher values of reproductive efficiency index (R = 47.23 ± 5.85% and S = 53.27 ± 3.74%) The overall aim of this study was to analyze different perspectives of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus genetic resistance. Therefore, the present study was divided into three manuscripts. Firstly, a literature review was conducted to present some aspects of tick resistance, like results of previous studies of bovine resistance, environmental effects on this triat, and some findings in molecular biology that will help to identify resistant animals. The second trial was conducted to estimate genetic parameters for tick resistance measured by two assessment methods in Hereford and Braford cattle, and genetic correlations between tick resistance and growth of animals. The animals belonging to the Delta G Connection genetic improvement consortium, were raised on nature and artificial pastures in Southern Brazil, and the age at the evaluation period was about 18 months. Data were analyzed from 6,462 bovines naturally exposed to ticks. The number of ticks was counted at inner hind legs region (IHL) of 3,413 animals between 2001 and 2008, and was recorded up to three consecutive counts at one side of body (LAT) in 3,049 bovines between 2009 and 2010, a total of 7,813 records. In addition, the database contained data of 109,566 birth weights (BW), 112,815 records of weight gain from birth to weaning (ADG) and 54,843 data of weight gain from weaning to yearling (PWG). For the analyses, tick count data was transformed using a logarithmic function. Heritability estimates obtained by bivariate analysis were IHL = 0.152 ± 0.043 and LAT = 0.235 ± 0.063 and genetic correlation between both methods was 0.575 ± 0.220. Single-trait analysis of LAT indicated a repeatability of 0.312 ± 0.014. Genetics association analysis between IHL and LAT and the development characteristics evaluated indicated significant associations between IHL and BW (0.220 ± 0.102), and favorable negative correlations between LAT and ADG (-0.211 ± 0.099) and LAT and PWG (-0.650 ± 0.125) (P<0.05). The objective of third trial was to analyze the bovine genetic resistance effect on tick biological traits. The engorged female ticks analyzed were collected from 40 Braford heifers classified as genetically resistant (R) or susceptible (S), according to the breeding values for tick count, calculated based on a database with 9,036 records of Hereford and Braford bovines. After classification, the selected heifers were moved to an experimental area in Embrapa Pecuária Sul, located in the city of Bagé, in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, and subjected to four artificial infestations, 14 days apart each one. Weights of engorged female ticks and of female ticks after oviposition did not differ between resistant and susceptible heifers. Female ticks engorged in genetically susceptible heifers showed higher capacity of posture (R = 0.097 ± 0.021g and S = 0.109 ± 0.030g) and higher values of reproductive efficiency index (R = 47.23 ± 5.85% and S = 53.27 ± 3.74%)
Keywords: Bovinocultura
Carrapatos
Eficiência reprodutiva de teleóginas
Parâmetros genéticos
Seleção
Cattle production
Cattle ticks
Genetic parameters
Selection
Tick reproductive efficiency
metadata.dc.subject.cnpq: CNPQ::CIENCIAS AGRARIAS::ZOOTECNIA
metadata.dc.language: por
metadata.dc.publisher.country: BR
Publisher: Universidade Federal de Pelotas
metadata.dc.publisher.initials: UFPel
metadata.dc.publisher.department: Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel
metadata.dc.publisher.program: Programa de Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia
Citation: BIEGELMEYER, Patrícia. Genetic resistance to Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus natural and artificial infestation in Hereford and Braford cattle. 2012. 96 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em Zootecnia) - Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, 2012.
metadata.dc.rights: OpenAccess
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/2601
Issue Date: 29-Feb-2012
Appears in Collections:Pós-Graduação em Zootecnia: Dissertações e Teses

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